Fidro Dostoevsky’s philosophy on the human plight
Written by: Doctor Abasin Mohibi
Excerpt from a study by a cultured friend, Dr. Abasin Mohebbi, on Dostoevsky’s philosophy
There is no doubt that Dostoevsky was a great writer and novelist, most of whose works, like himself, is a story of rebellious people, because Dostoevsky’s private life had many ups and downs, from the wanderings of Avan Jovani to borrowing, gambling, and escaping from creditors to condemnation. Execution includes everyone. However, his inclusion in the ranks of philosophers may surprise many.
There are and have been many philosophers who have philosophized using essay writing and essay inscription. Still, philosophizing in stories is not only possible, but great storytellers can, in some cases, can write better and more effectively with fiction. Among these, in his works, Dostoevsky, such as in the book entitled (Karamazov Brothers) in the nineteenth century and Albert Camus with his famous work (Plague) in the twentieth century, are two prominent examples who are very skilled in storytelling. They have philosophized the theory of life and human being as they were paying attention to their work.
Philosophers must-read Dostoevsky’s novels for three reasons.
First: that, his preoccupation was with philosophical questions, that is, answering philosophical questions and solving philosophical problems, and for this reason, he could be considered a philosopher. During his tumultuous life, he wanted to answer two fundamental questions.
A: What is the human predicament?
B: How did he should survive this predicament?
The first question engages Dostoevsky in a metaphysical contemplation of the will, nature of the individual, and God’s existence. The second question draws him into a realm of ethics and super-morality. It is associated with devastating possibilities; he was very concerned about human freedom and the resulting anxiety. So a restraining force must be found that can adapt to this freedom.
In his attempt to solve this problem, Dostoevsky presents the highest discussion of evil in his book (The Karamazov Brothers); He believed that the natural evil that philosophers believe in does not exist externally, that is, that it does not cause the evil of human beings, but rather that it depends on the conditions under which man, as a free being, is placed in the bed with free will.
Philosophers usually divide evil into two categories:
Human or moral evil and natural evil
The first category includes acts that occur at the hands of humans, such as murder and torture. The second category includes natural causes such as diseases and natural disasters that are not available to humans.
Second: that; The works of Dostoevsky and himself are important in philosophical discussions because they have influenced other philosophers and, therefore, he is usually considered an existentialist philosopher.
If the German-American philosopher Walter Kaufmann’s theory considers Dostoevsky’s book (Underground Notes) to be the best prelude to all time’s existentialism.
On the other hand, Friedrich Nietzsche was so impressed by reading the book (Underground Memoirs) that he was only two years old after reading it. Still, his influence on Nietzsche was so profound that even Nietzsche himself did not know the problem because, in his famous work (Dawn), he is clear that he is on Dostoevsky’s path.
The effect is so significant that Nietzsche has found a better way, Dostoevsky, to enlighten, strengthen, and make his arguments more transparent.
And third: that; Dostoevsky’s novels are full of severe critiques of philosophical and religious views. Dostoevsky questions the unity of the individual, the rational defense of belief in God, the defense of morality based on reason and logic, and even the validity of rationality.
On the other hand, some philosophers, such as Plato, Hume, and Barclay, wrote their theses in colloquial form, and nineteenth-century philosophers Nietzsche and Kierkegaard tried their theses in different non-traditional formats.
But most philosophers have presented their philosophy in the form of treatises and essays. In the nineteenth century, Sartre also wrote his theses in different formats: using plays, novels, articles, and philosophical treatises to This is why he is known as a philosopher. But others, such as Albert Camus and Ayn Rand, who were interested in philosophical questions, are less considered philosophers.
At this stage, to further explain and examine Dostoevsky’s answer in connection with the above questions, including What is the human problem? And second, How did he live with it? In the book (Karamazov Brothers), we continue the discussion.
What is the plight of man?
His answer is summarized in five claims.
First: Everything except man is perfect and free from sin.
Second, human beings have the will to be free in their voluntary sense, which is the most precious thing.
Third, older people are complex and have a conflicting motivation; that is, they have broad, unrestrained temperaments that can accommodate any extreme.
Fourth: Some of these motives that exist within human beings lead man to sin; that is, a wild animal has nested in every human being, which leads him to evil.
As the great Mawlanai Rumi has said in this regard:
In one hour, we can see humankind as wolves.
And some times, the humans appear as Joseph lighten as the moon,
Fifth: In his view, however, children are free from sin
In response to the second question, Dostoevsky comments:
First: We are responsible for our actions according to the ruling.
Second, there is a general moral law that depends on man’s belief in God and immortality. Dostoevsky has become clear that only God can uphold absolute moral law, and the promise of immortality makes it possible for him to be rewarded with virtue and piety.
According to Dostoevsky, one of the most important things is to use our freedom correctly. He concludes that to find the right meaning of life and find support for absolute moral laws, we must turn to God and submit to God’s love.
In practical terms, he explains in detail how this should be done:
First: Do not separate ourselves from others and do not be isolated.
Second: To love others, especially those who are doing a sin the most because they need love and kindness most of all.
Third: Feel responsible for everyone
Fourth: Be humble because we are not better than anyone else and do not judge others, but judge ourselves
Fifth: Be honest
Sixth: And finally, we must love the earth and everything in nature.
Dostoevsky makes three points for the character that is slightly different from those of Plato and Freud; these are:
And spiritual character
It is interesting to note that Dostoevsky says that children are innocent and, in some ways, a useful guide for us.
Finally, it can be argued that Dostoevsky believes in absolute values and says that everyone should believe in these values. If we eliminate it, we will have to pay a high price for it. If we do not accept the absolute value, everything Will is allowed; These Dostoevsky phrases are also understandable in the works of the famous sociologist of the Islamic world, Dr. Ali Shariati.
The most tempting part of Dostoevsky’s philosophy is that if we have the kind of freedom and authority he thinks he can, he can be an imaginary picture of the world. We can love others, sow its seeds, and wait for it to take root, so what do we have to lose?
And our pride.