Collector: Dr. Shams al-Haq Arianfar
Nowruz, the celebration of nature and the national and historical holiday of the Aryans, was registered by UNESCO as an intangible world heritage site on December 29, 2009. On February 22, 2009, it was recognized as a global holiday, as stated in the text approved by the UN General Assembly: Nowruz is a 2,000year-old Aryan holiday celebrated by more than two hundred million people today.
Historians have defined the geography of Nowruz as follows: the Middle East, Balkans, Kazakhstan, Tatarstan, Central Asia, East China, Sudan, Asia Minor, Caucasus, North America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal…
There are several features in celebrating Nowruz:
– First, Nowruz is the beginning of spring and the beginning of nature, and the resurrection of nature; Therefore, it is the most natural and ancient human holiday.
Nowruz is a symbol of life and death or the destruction and resurrection of creation. The Creator depicts the resurrection and the afterlife to human beings with spring and life, which is also worth considering in this regard.
– For Aryans and Easterners who experience the four seasons of the year, Nowruz is a national and historical holiday.
A look at the history and background of the celebration of Nowruz shows that the Aryan rulers and the inhabitants of the East, in different places, celebrated Nowruz with at least one of these three beliefs in mind:
Given this belief, the forefathers of Nowruz celebrated the birthday of Kiomars, the first Aryan man and ruler, the birth of Houshang, the birthday, or the birthday of Kaykhosrow. And so they believed:
On the same day, Kiomars, Jamshid, Kaykhosrow, and Goshtasb came to the kingdom.
Ferdowsi, who considers Nowruz to be the celebration of Jamshid’s enthronement, says:
He made a bed for Far Kiani
What did not start with Gondar
That you took a demon because you wanted to
We raised our knees to the wheel
The sun shines in the air
Sitting on that ruling king
The world of the association became on his throne
Surprised by his luck
Jamshid was gemmed
They called that day a new day
Such a celebration of Farrokh from that time
Remain in the hands of Zan Khosrovan Yadegar
Or they said:
On the same day, Fereydoun divided the country among his children.
Or they would say:
On the same day in 528 BC, Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon;
On the same day in 416, Darius I celebrated in Persepolis and minted coins for this occasion.
On the same day in 220 AD, Ardashir Babakan conquered Rome and forced them to celebrate Nowruz, which the Roman Senate approved. On this basis, the Romans celebrated Nowruz, which in their territory was known as Lupercal.
Who based on these beliefs that the Aryans celebrated the first Nowruz as “Navasarda (New Year)” and the Sogdians as “Nosard” and “Ino Sarji,” meaning New Year.
The Achaemenid kings held a grand celebration on this day, accepting the gifts of the colonies and the territories of Tabe.
To celebrate Nowruz, 25 days ago, the Sassanids planted 12 varieties of beans in the base pillars and saw it during a ceremony on Nowruz. Each one grew well, and they thought the plant would grow well in the year it started.
The Samanids celebrated this festival, and the Ghaznavids saw their army on the same day. According to Beyhaqi, Massoud Ghaznavi accepted the gifts of the governors on the same day. Encouraged by Omar Khayyam and other scientists, the Seljuk queen leaped the year and began Nowruz.
Through the sage Omar Khayyam and other scholars, the Seljuk king leaped the year and, with their encouragement, took the beginning of the year from Nowruz and celebrated it.
In the Timurid era, we see Nowruz celebrations in Herat and Balkh. This is the trend that is being celebrated by the Afghan government today: Two weeks before Nowruz, a committee of ministers, including the Minister of Culture and the Minister of Agriculture, will be tasked with celebrating Nowruz. This committee organizes the celebration of Nowruz in a lively way. On this day, all government officials, representatives of foreign countries, and representatives of the people and peasants are invited to the celebration. For good production, good sheep or horses or birds are rewarded. Peasants who have innovated and reaped good results are appreciated. The farmers of different areas are drawn, and the agricultural display is done. This is the best way to celebrate Nowruz, celebrated as a celebration of work, life, and construction. Imitating this way of celebrating in Afghanistan is, I think, worthy and praiseworthy for the countries that celebrate this holiday. This celebration of Nowruz ties the celebration to its original nature and turns it into a celebration of life in the world and a world celebration of life.
– Some people also believe that Nowruz is the day of the creation of the world. As Al-Biruni has stated in Al-Tafhim: Nowruz is the first day since the beginning of time.
– They said: The name of this day is Jupiter and Jupiter is the Creator’s name.
– They said: On this day, Tahmurth defeated the court that had won the blessing, abolished the religion of astrology, and introduced the old religion.
Later, Zoroastrians wanted to use Nowruz, a popular and natural holiday, to benefit their religion.
– They said: Nowruz is the birthday of Zoroaster.
– They said: On this day, Goshtasb accepted the Zoroastrian religion.
When Islam came, participation in the celebration of spring and nature was tied to the religion of Islam and the Abrahamic religion:
It is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadegh that he said: On this day, God made a covenant with His servants that they would not associate partners with Him and that they would believe in His prophets.
– On this day, Abraham broke the idols
– On this day, Noah’s ark landed on Mount Judy
– On this day, the Prophet broke the idols of the Kaaba
– in this Ali’s day ascended to the Caliphate
– On this day, Imam Zaman was born.
In connection with this religious belief, in Balkh, the center of Goshtasb rule, which accepted the Zoroastrian religion, the celebration of Nowruz continued and was glorified. In the Islamic era, especially in the Timurid era, Nowruz was associated with honoring Hazrat Ali Raz and raising its knowledge who pretended that Imam Ali had reached the Caliphate on Nowruz. The two verses also murmured to the people in which it is stated:
It was Nowruz, and the whole world became fragrant with the scent of tulips, Nasrin, and poplar.
He sat on the throne of the Caliphate
Groom of the Prophet, Lion of God, Saqi Kowsar
In addition to historical and religious beliefs, the general public believes: This celebration is a celebration of nature, a spring mile, a mile of saplings and greenery, and joy in the lap of nature. People do not know the religious and historical significance of this celebration, but they come excited and go to the slopes and rejoice as soon as spring comes. Men and women go to the desert and enjoy the open and clean nature. Nowruz and Nobahar are related to this season and the change of climate and the greening of nature, and it has not had any religious connection. If some customs and rituals are remnants of Zoroastrianism or Christianity, it is later linked to Nowruz as some Islamic traditions have been added.
Two great events
Two events in history and in connection with the two great religions of Zoroastrianism and Islam, which are included in the text of people’s lives, have made people believe in the religiosity of Nowruz.
Zoroastrian event: In Sassanid times, during the Nowruz period, there was an official event that on Nowruz, the first person to come to the king was the cleric or leader of the whole Zoroastrian religion. The cleric had in his hand a golden cup, a ring, dermis, and dinars, a bunch of green Khoi, sword, bow and arrow, medicine, and pen. Esther and Baz were slaves to him. He would enter the king and praise the king with poetry. In fact, on the day of Nowruz, the cleric would give the king of poetry a gift and praise him with the gift of poetry and leave all the things he had with him to the king so that all those wishes would increase this year. This was a good omen for the New Year on Nowruz. The cleric praised the king for his poetry. The poem is mentioned in Hakim Omar Khayyam’s Nowruznameh as “Afarin Mubad Mobadan” ،. Its text is as follows: »Shaha to the celebration of Farvardin, to the month of Farvardin A vision to the associate, and to be late and with a cheerful temperament and be happy on the golden throne, and Anusha Khor to Jam Jamshid, and gave the tradition of the ancestors in the high effort, charity and sports, and to keep the truth, a green wind of youth and youth like you, ، Apt and victorious, and a precise blade and work on the enemy and a beautiful retreat, and take a new country every time with dermis and dinars. A dear artistic and wise leader, Abadan contagion and many lives.
Islamic event: In Afghanistan, the knowledge of Imam Ali is raised on Nowruz, and on the 10th of Farvardin, the knowledge of Imam Sahib is raised in Kunduz province. Science will also be held on April 1 in Mandavi, Kabul, a market for grain and food. All these ceremonies are performed during religious ceremonies, after the recitation of God Almighty’s words. Then prayers are prayed for the happiness of the Islamic world and the well-be people’s well-being, goodness, and blessings in the society
These two events have caused some to consider Nowruz as a Zoroastrian holiday and others as an Islamic holiday. According to authoritative Zoroastrian and Islamic sources, Nowruz is not associated with any of these religions. Portwood, who translated the Avesta, and Mehrdad Avesta, who has done extensive research on Avestan culture and Pahlavi, have explicitly written: Nowhere in the Gathas or Avesta is there any mention of Nowruz. We also know in Islam that there is no mention of Nowruz. We must accept that Nowruz is a celebration of the Creator’s beautiful nature, the time of the renewal of the world and the display of the Creator’s power and glory, and the celebration of the cultivator and the celebration of the peasant. It is good that in spring, when the universe is moving and the damp plant begins to sprout, grow and move at the bottom of the black flower, we also move and celebrate Nowruz as a celebration of work, life, and excellent construction, not as a celebration. Let us, the Zoroastrians, be hostile to him and not as an Islamic celebration, let us assume that Nowruz, at the same time as the creation of the universe and the renewal of nature in the spring, was also celebrated by primitive human beings, and then these religions did not exist.
Relationship between Nowruz and religion
Collector: Dr. Shams al-Haq Arianfar